In Indonesia, provision of electricity from hydropower currently only 3,394 megawatts, is far from a potential of 75,000 megawatts. The Indonesian government currently has 261 dams but only 22 dams that already have hydropower. Hydropower plant is one type of power plant that is the most widely used form of renewable energy and environmentally friendly. By develop 5,000 mega-watts of hydroelectricity, Indonesia could save goverment subsidy of Rp 10 trillion per year.
Terms and Definitions / Technical Comparison of Hydropower and Other Power Plants
PLTA – Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air or in English terms is Hydroelectric power plant (HEPP) / water-power plant is a power plant that relies on the potential energy and kinetic energy of water to generate electricity. Hydro power is power derived from the energy of falling water and running water, which may be harnessed for turning the turbines of electric generator. The electrical energy generated is commonly referred to as hydroelectric. Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy. Hydropower plant is one type of power plant that is environmentally friendly, because it uses water as its primary energy. Potential energy of water with a certain height is used to drive a turbine coupled with a generator. E.g.: PLTA Saguling (4×175 MW), PLTA PB Soedirman (3×60 MW)
PLTU – Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Uap (PLTU) or Steam power plant is a power plant that relies on the kinetic energy of steam to produce electricity by turning the turbines of electric generators. Coal Steam Power Plant is one type of steam power plant installations where electric power obtained from the engine turbine rotated by steam produced by burning coal. E.g.: PLTU Suralaya Unit 1-4 (4×371 MW) and Unit 5-7 (3×575 MW), PLTU Perak, Surabaya Unit 3-4 (2×28 MW).
PLTGU – Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Gas dan Uap or Steam and gas power plant. E.g.: PLTGU Priok Blok I dan II masing-masing (3×120 MW dan 1×171 MW), PLTG Priok Unit 1&3 (2×17 MW) , PLTGU Tambak Lorok Blok I and II (3×100 MW and 1×152 MW), PLTGU Grati, Lekok, Pasuruan Blok I (3×99 MW and 1×153 MW), PLTG Grati Blok II (3×100 MW).
PLTP – Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Panas Bumi or Geothermal Power Plant. E.g.: PLTP Gunung Salak (3×57 MW) dan PLTP Kamojang, Garut Unit 1 (27 MW), Unit 2-3 (2×57 MW).
Hydroelectric Principles and Energy Conversion
Basic principle of hydropower relies on the potential energy of water is converted into kinetic energy with the head, then the kinetic energy is transformed into mechanical energy in the presence of water flow that drives the turbine, the mechanical energy is transformed into electrical energy through the rotation of the rotor of the generator. The amount of electrical energy that can be generated by water resources depends on two things, namely a high of water (head) and how much water flow (flowrate).
Current Conditions and Prospect (Why hydroelectricity ?)
Electricity generation costs in average is reached Rp 1,217 per kWh. The average selling price is Rp 725 per kWh. So , government subsidy is about Rp 500 per kWh.
Comparison of electricity production costs of several types of power plants, as follows:
- PLTA is Rp 156 per kWh
- PLTU is Rp 810 per kWh
- PLTGU is Rp 1,002 per kWh
- PLTP is Rp 1,121 per kWh
Deputi Bidang Sarana dan Prasarana BAPPENAS or Infrastructure Deputy of National Development Planning, Dedy S Priatna (Bisnis Indonesia, 11/02/2014) said that by develop 5,000 mega-watts of hydroelectricity could be saved subsidy of Rp 10 trillion per year.
In Indonesia, provision of electricity from hydropower currently only 3,394 megawatts, is far from a potential of 75,000 megawatts.
The Indonesian government currently has 261 dams. And only 22 dams that already have hydropower.
Seen also that the dams optimization is still minimal.
The presence of state-owned dams can reduce the cost of construction of hydropower up to 30% -40%.
Hydropower development can be faster about 2.5 years because there is no land acquisition issues.
Challenges to build a New Hydro Power Plant ?
Investments to build hydropower is relatively large , i.e. US$ 2 million – US$ 3 million per megawatt.
Substantial investment to build a hydropower plant that needs to involve private investors.
When involving the private sector, production of hyrdoelectricity is expected to remain competitive prices.
Location of dams for hydropower should close to the users so that electricity comes from hydropower can be transmitted, distributed and absorbed well. For example, adjacent to a big city.
Hydropower development needs to be done properly to preserve its natural condition.
Hydropower development is intended for the prosperity, however other environmental issues also need to be considered, such as the impact of hydropower development on the social environment and cultural when residents have to move if build a new huge hydro power plant.
New Hydro Power Plants Development
The Indonesian government plans to build 12 hydro power plants (PLTA) on the the government’s dams with projected value of investment of around Rp 100 trillion.
The government is currently conducting a feasibility study with a budget of Rp 36 billion – Rp 60 billion.
References / read more :
- “Pengurangan Subsidi Energi – 12 PLTA Siap Dibangun”, Bisnis Indonesia, page 4, 11-Feb-2014.
- “Renewable Energy”, http://en.wikipedia.org/
- “List of power stations in Indonesia”, http://en.wikipedia.org/
- “Indonesia Power”, http://id.wikipedia.org/