Denpasar moon, shining on an empty street
I returned to the place we used to meet
Denpasar moon, shine your light and let me see
That my love is still waiting there for me..
Above it is a piece of the famous “Denpasar Moon” song lyrics by Maribeth on the island of Bali. When the full moon is so beautiful , especially where we are at Kuta beach, Bali. Moon is a natural satellite. What are there at space, else? Yes, there are satellites …
What is a Satellite ?
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon.
Satellites are used for a large number of purposes. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and research satellites. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites.
Satellites are usually semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, telemetry, attitude control and orbit control.
Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways.
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an international authority orbital slot.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), originally founded as the International Telegraph Union (French: Union Internationale des Télécommunications), is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies. The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards. ITU, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group.
How many artificial satellite are remain in the orbit ?
The world’s first artificial satellite, the Sputnik 1, was launched by the Soviet Union in 1957. Since then, thousands of satellites have been launched into orbit around the Earth. About 6,600 satellites have been launched. The latest estimates are that 3,600 remain in orbit. Of those, about 1000 are operational, the rest have lived out their useful lives and are part of the space debris.
Space debris, also known as orbital debris, space junk, and space waste, is the collection of defunct objects in orbit around Earth. This includes everything from spent rocket stages, old satellites, fragments from disintegration, erosion, and collisions. Since orbits overlap with new spacecraft, debris may collide with operational spacecraft. Hazard on earth, although most debris will burn up in the atmosphere, larger objects can reach the ground intact and present a risk. Space research in many developed countries is being intensified for the solution of space debris. (See Video “Space Debris Reaching Critical Point” at URL: http://youtu.be/Xag_M79RyqE)
Indonesian satellites :
Until date, 13 satellites belonging to the Indonesian have been launched. Since the first Indonesian satellites orbiting in 1976 until 2012, three satellites fully operational failure, Palapa B2 which launched but failed reaching in orbit , Palapa C1 is only able to operate for two years due to a problem recharging the battery, as well as Telkom-3 missing before reaching orbit.
A Proton-M rocket lifted off from Baikonur in Kazakhstan on August 6th 2012, at 19:31 UTC carrying the Telkom-3 and Express MD2 communication satellites. The upperstage Breeze-M failed during the third of four burns. It is expected the satellites are lost. Telkom Satellite worth U.S. $ 150 Million was failed to be launched into orbit. In a press release, Telkom claimed to have been insuring this satellite. [See Video : “Telkom-3 satellite was failed to be launched into orbit” ( video courtesy of TVOne, uploaded in YouTube by LintasMe on 7 Agt 2012 at URL : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O_M5yqtdGtI or video by NTDIndonesian at URL : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6VPxf9w7ahA)]
The first Indonesian satellite in space was Palapa A1 belongs PERUMTEL (now Telkom) which launched on July 8, 1976 by using the USA Rocket , Hughes (HS-333). The satellite was launched from Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, above the orbital slot 83 degrees east longitude. Palapa name is taken from the “Palapa Oath” by great prime minister / warlords Gajah Mada of Majapahit in 1336.
Majapahit Kingdom was really strong in Indonesia circa 1300-1400, at the time the King Hayam Wuruk and Mahapatih Gajah Mada (circa 1290 – circa 1364) ruled Majapahit. At his coronation as Mahapatih (Prime Minister), Gajah Mada took his famous oath, Palapa Oath or Sumpah Palapa .
Palapa oath is a declaration / oath by Gajah Mada presented at a ceremony appointment to Patih Amangkubhumi Majapahit, in 1258 Saka (1336 AD).
Gajah Mada’s legacy is important for Indonesian Nationalism, and invoked by Indonesian Nationalist movement in early 20th century. The Nationalists , notably Sukarno, often quotes the Gajah Mada oath as an inspiration. That Indonesians could unite, despite vast territory and various cultures. Thus, Gajah Mada was a great inspiration during the Indonesian National Revolution for independence and at present.
The first satellite made in Indonesia
In 2006, the first satellite made in Indonesia, INASAT-1 was launched. This satellite is a sensing methodology satellite for weather imaging which made by LAPAN (Indonesia space agency). The spacecraft is designed jointly by LAPAN and PT.Dirgantara Indonesia .
Indonesia’s first micro satellite
LAPAN does not stop there. LAPAN-TUBSAT was built by LAPAN in collaboration with the Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin; TU Berlin) . It is Indonesia’s first micro satellite.
The five satellite operators in Indonesia
Currently in Indonesia there are five operators which operate seven satellites, namely
- Indosat (the Palapa C1 113 ° East Longitude slot and Palapa C4 150.5 ° East Longitudeslot ),
- Telkom (the Palapa B1 BT 108 ° East Longitude slot and Palapa B3 BT 118 ° East Longitude slot ),
- PT Media Citra Indostar (Indostar 107 ° East Longitude slot),
- PSN (the Palapa Pacific 146 ° East Longitude slot), and
- PT ACeS (Garuda1 slot BT 123 ° East Longitude slot).
The satellite orbit slot 150.5 East Longitude
Currently there are PT Indosat, PT Telkom and PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) Tbk being serious request to the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (Kemenkominfo) to manage the satellite in orbit slot 150.5 East Longitude. During this time slot is managed by Indosat placing Palapa C-2.
PT BRI wants to have its own satellite network to serve his ATM and communication. BRI President Director Sofyan Basir stating the state-owned bank has set up an internal fund of about U.S. $ 250 million, or at least Rp 2.5 trillion to build and manage their own satellites.
Video : “IINUSAT ( Indonesia Inter University Satellite )” ( Video courtesy of HimaElektroITS, uploaded by himatektroits on 14 Nov 2012)
References / read more :
- Satellite , ( http://en.wikipedia.org/ )
- Space debris , (http://en.wikipedia.org/ )
- International Telecommunication Union (http://en.wikipedia.org/ )
- Tugas dan Fungsi – Kemenkominfo , (http://www.kominfo.go.id/index.php/node/711/Tugas+dan+Fungsi)
- Mengenal Tonggak Sejarah Satelit Indonesia , (http://msdailylife.wordpress.com/)
- Sumpah Palapa , (http://id.wikipedia.org/ )
- Gajah Mada , http://en.wikipedia.org/ )
- Unite Nusantara, The Palapa Oath , (http://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/)
- Telkom & Indosat berebut slot 150,5o BT , (http://www.bumn.go.id/)
- Wah… BRI Serius Ingin Kelola Satelit , (http://indotelko.com/)
- Nasib Slot Orbit Satelit Indosat Ditetapkan Februari , (http://www.investor.co.id/)