LPG : Lupa Pakai Gas

Last week the people around me was surprised by the sudden rise the price of LPG gas in tube content of 12 kg. I follow the news on national private television. I initially ignored it because of forgetting to use the gas, because my wife is often cook not me. When my wife asked for extra money because of rising gas prices, then I’m participating so surprised. Yes, “Lupa Pakai Gas” is Indonesian Language, the meaning in English is “forget using gas”. And reported five days ago, the increase in LPG gas prices for tube size 12 kg has been revised to Rp 1,000 per kg. I forgot how much earlier the price rise per kg? Hopefully there is the best solution for all happy.

However, this is a trigger to my mind to read at a glance what the LPG ? and to compare LPG with other fuels. Happy reading my post below. Don’t forget for more comprehensive details, kindly check to the other sources.

Natural gas

Natural gas in Indonesian Language, is often also referred to as a “Gas Alam” or “Gas Bumi”.
Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of buried plants and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years.
The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of carbon in natural gas.
Natural gas is a nonrenewable resource because it cannot be replenished on a human time frame.
Natural gas is a hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly includes varying amounts of other higher alkanes and even a lesser percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide.
Natural gas is an energy source often used for heating, cooking, and electricity generation.
It is also used as fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals.
Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Petroleum is also another resource found in proximity to and with natural gas.
Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material.

Shale gas

Shale gas is natural gas produced from shale.
Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.

Town gas

Town gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made by the destructive distillation of coal and contains a variety of calorific gases including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and other volatile hydrocarbons, together with small quantities of non-calorific gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and is used in a similar way to natural gas.

Biogas

Methanogenic archaea are responsible for all biological sources of methane.
Some live in symbiotic relationships with other life forms, including termites, ruminants, and cultivated crops.
Other sources of methane, the principal component of natural gas, include landfill gas, biogas, and methane hydrate.
When methane-rich gases are produced by the anaerobic decay of non-fossil organic matter (biomass), these are referred to as biogas (or natural biogas).
Sources of biogas include swamps, marshes, and landfills (see landfill gas), as well as agricultural waste materials such as sewage sludge and manure by way of anaerobic digesters, in addition to enteric fermentation, particularly in cattle.

Liquefied petroleum gas or LPG

Liquefied petroleum gas, also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, liquid petroleum gas or simply propane or butane, is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles.
LPG is prepared by refining petroleum or “wet” natural gas, and is almost entirely derived from fossil fuel sources.

Liquefied natural gas or LNG

Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport.
Liquefied natural gas takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state.
It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive.
The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The natural gas is then condensed into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure (maximum transport pressure set at around 25 kPa (4 psi)) by cooling it to approximately −162 °C (−260 °F).
LNG achieves a higher reduction in volume than compressed natural gas (CNG) so that the /volumetric/ energy density of LNG is 2.4 times greater than that of CNG or 60 percent of that of diesel fuel.

Compressed natural gas or CNG

CNG (Compressed natural gas) (Methane stored at high pressure) can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG.
CNG combustion produces fewer undesirable gases than the fuels mentioned above.
It is safer than other fuels in the event of a spill, because natural gas is lighter than air and disperses quickly when released.
CNG may be found above oil deposits, or may be collected from landfills or wastewater treatment plants where it is known as biogas.
CNG is made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed of methane, CH4), to less than 1 percent of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure. It is stored and distributed in hard containers at a pressure of 200–248 bar (2,900–3,600 psi), usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes.

Uses

  • Power generation – Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation through the use of cogeneration, gas turbines and steam turbines.
  • Domestic uses – Natural gas dispensed from a simple stovetop can generate heat in excess of 2000°F (1093°C) making it a powerful domestic cooking and heating fuel.
  • Transportation  – CNG is a cleaner alternative to other automobile fuels such as gasoline (petrol) and diesel.
  • Fertilizers – Natural gas is a major feedstock for the production of ammonia, via the Haber process, for use in fertilizer production.
  • Hydrogen or H2 gas – Natural gas can be used to produce hydrogen, with one common method being the hydrogen reformer. Hydrogen has many applications: it is a primary feedstock for the chemical industry, a hydrogenating agent, an important commodity for oil refineries, and the fuel source in hydrogen vehicles.
  • Aviation –Russian aircraft manufacturer Tupolev is currently running a development program to produce LNG- and hydrogen-powered aircraft.
  • Other – Natural gas is also used in the manufacture of fabrics, glass, steel, plastics, paint, and other products.

Environmental effects

Effect of natural gas release

Natural gas is mainly composed of methane.
After release to the atmosphere it is removed over about 10 years by gradual oxidation to carbon dioxide and water by hydroxyl radicals (·OH) formed in the troposphere or stratosphere, giving the overall chemical reaction CH4 + 2O2→ CO2 + 2H2O.
While the lifetime of atmospheric methane is relatively short when compared to carbon dioxide, it is more efficient at trapping heat in the atmosphere, so that a given quantity of methane has 62 times the global-warming potential of carbon dioxide over a 20-year period, 20 times over a 100-year period and 8 times over a 500-year period.
Natural gas is thus a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide due to the greater global-warming potential of methane.
The extraction, storage, transportation and distribution of natural gas is known to leak into the atmosphere, particularly during the extraction process.
Natural gas extraction also releases an isotope of Radon, ranging from 5 to 200,000 Becquerels per cubic meter.

CO2 emissions

Natural gas is often described as the cleanest fossil fuel.
It produces about 29% and 44% less carbon dioxide per joule delivered than oil and coal respectively, and potentially fewer pollutants than other hydrocarbon fuels.

Other pollutants

Natural gas produces far lower amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxides than any other hydrocarbon fuels

References :

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7 responses to “LPG : Lupa Pakai Gas

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