QA/QC is the combination of quality assurance, the process or set of processes used to measure and assure the quality of a product, and quality control, the process of meeting products and services to consumer expectations.
Quality assurance, or QA for short, refers to a program for the systematic monitoring and evaluation of the various aspects of a project, service, or facility to ensure that standards of quality are being met.
Quality control emphasizes testing of products to uncover defects, and reporting to management who make the decision to allow or deny the release, whereas quality assurance attempts to improve and stabilize production, and associated processes, to avoid, or at least minimize, issues that led to the defects in the first place.
Nondestructive testing or Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage.
The terms Nondestructive examination (NDE), Nondestructive inspection (NDI), and Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are also commonly used to describe this technology.
- Qualified instructions on how to complete the weld.
- A WPS is a written (qualified) welding procedure prepared to provide direction for the making of production welds.
- Record of the welding parameters and test results
- A PQR is a record of welding data used to weld a test coupon
- Record of Welder test results and range of approval
Welding Inspector (WI) ?
- Inspect welds
Three basic work function categories:
- Overseer: code inspector
- Specialist: NDT radiographer
- Combination of overseer and specialist
WI – Essential Requirements:
- Physical Condition
- Knowledge of Welding
- Knowledge of Drawings, Specifications, and Procedures
- Knowledge of Testing Methods
- Education and Training
- Welding Experience
- Inspection Experience
- Certification of Qualification
Welding Inspection Operations
- Knowledge of drawings, standard/codes/specifications, and manufacturing instructions
- Verification of the manufacturer’r approved quality assurance program
- Verification of welder and inspector qualifications
- Verification of approved procedures for qualifying welders and inspection personnel
- Verification that approved welding and inspection procedures are being used
- Selection of production test samples
- Evaluation of test results
- Preparation of test reports and storage of records
Typical Welding Inspection Procedure
- Material identification
- Chemical analysis
- Mechanical properties
- Edge preparation (including root face and beveling)
- Root opening
- Backing (where required)
- Preheat and interpass temperatures
- Filler Metal
- Root Pass
- Root preparation prior to welding second side
- Cleaning between passes
- Appearance of passes
- In-process NDT inspection as required or specified
- Conformance to approved welding procedure
- Postheat treatment requirements
- Method of cleaning for inspection
- Visual inspection
- Nondestructive testing (NDT)
- Destructive testing
- Surface contour and finish of welds
- Conformity of welds with drawings
- Magnetic particle and liquid penetrant tests
- Ultrasonic tests
- Proof testing
- Other suitable methods
- An inspector should be able to maintain adequate records.
- To check all records for completeness and accuracy in accordance with specified requirements.
- To make certain that records are available when needed.
- Any records that require the fabricator’s signature should be prepared by the fabricator rather than the inspector.
- Records should be in as much detail as necessary.
- It is desirable that the inspector comment on th general character of the work, how well it stayed within prescribed tolerances, difficulties that occurred, and any defects.
- Any repair should be explained
- Copies of this records should go to all persons entitled to received them, and the inspector should keep a copy in his own file.
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A 2 year program available at NSCC Pictou Campus.
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- CSWIP 3.0 – Visual Welding Inspector – Level 1 (http://www.twitraining.com/home/course-schedule/cswip-visual-welding-inspector-level-1)
- QA/QC (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QA/QC)
- QA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_assurance)
- Nondestructive testing (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nondestructive_testing)
- NDT Videos – All the best NDT related videos from around the web (http://wiki.ndthub.com/ndt-videos)
- Welding Inspection & QC (http://wiki.ndthub.com/ndt-videos/32)
“Welding Inspection”, Second Edition, by AWS Committee on Methods of Inspection, American Welding Society, Miami, United States of America, 1980.
“Welding Procedure & Welder Qualification Review”, Bob Pennycook, Lloyd’s Register EMEA, http://www.lloydsregister.co.uk
“A Textbook of Welding Technology (For Engineering Students)”, 20th reprint, Dr. O.P. Khanna, YMCA Institute of Engineering, Faridabad, Haryana, Published by Ish Kapur for Dhanpat Rai Publications (P) Ltd, New Delhi, 2011